From the mountains of Peru, Incas ruled a highly civilised empire. Around the beginning of the 13th century, the Incas began to conquer their neighbouring lands. But, the empire was formally established in the year 1438 under the king Pachacuti.
In the next few decades, the empire further extended to what we today call Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Columbia. The civilisation also encouraged trade. It was during this time the first potatoes were taken from South America to Europe. The Incas built stone cities and fine roads, which were used by traders.
After the death of the Emperor Huayna Capac, a civil war began in 1527. This was followed by Spanish invasions, which ultimately caused the fall of the Incas empire.