One of the most ancient civilisations was that of Mesopotamia. It grew on the plains between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers – today’s Iraq.

Some historians estimate that early Sumerians began to settle in the region around as early as 5000 BC. But, it was only after 3500 BC, the civilisation began to grow towards its peak. This time was crucial for two reasons:

  1. a) Sumerians invented writing.
  2. b) Sumerians invented the wheel.

In the centuries to be followed, Sumerians built a vast civilisation, where they went from an early dynastic period to wars with Akkadians and Gutians. The famous epic of Gilgamesh was written down in around 2000 BC. Soon after that, the city of Ur was destroyed by Elamites, and the Sumerian civilisation came to an end.

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