René Descartes (1596 – 1650) was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, physicist and writer. He is known for his influential arguments for substance dualism, where mind and body are considered to have distinct essences, one being characterised by thought, the other by spatial extension.
Descartes has been dubbed the “Father of Modern Philosophy” and the “Father of Modern Mathematics.” He is also known as Cartesius and is often remembered for his famous quote: I think; therefore I am. (Cogito ergo sum.)
Let us understand his major philosophical ideas before going deeper into his works.
Rules for the Direction of Mind
Discourse on the Method
The Passions of the Soul
Meditations on First Philosophy